What is a restriction of competition and when is it a restriction by object?

“Our competitors are our friends, our customers are the enemy”, this could be the unofficial motto of a company in a cartel.  Even though this sentence is of course a simplistic definition, it shows abstractly some major aspects of a restriction of competition in terms of Art.101 TFEU: The competitors are friends, which implies that there must be a kind of consensus preventing them to take actions against each other’s interest.


Germany: fear of terrorist attacks

In a confidential report quoted by the daily Die Welt on 13 January, the Federal Criminal Police Office (BKA) warned that there may be copycat terrorists ready to carry out attacks similar to those seen in France. Although the situation of Muslims in Germany is different from that in France, information about the assault in Paris has contributed to Germans feeling an increasing sense of threat.

German party manifestos are increasingly likely to downplay European issues and reflect negative attitudes toward the EU

Although the 2013 German elections were viewed as having wider importance for the rest of Europe, the issue of Europe itself played only a minor role in the election campaign. Sonia Alonso outlines results from an analysis of German party manifestos to assess the extent to which parties have emphasised European issues in elections since 1949.


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